Most developing organs are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), which must be remodeled to accommodate growth and morphogenesis. In C. elegans, the GON-1 ADAMTS metalloprotease regulates both elongation and shape of the developing gonad . Here, we report that either human ADAMTS-4 or ADAMTS-9 can substitute for GON-1 in transgenic worms, suggesting functional conservation between human and nematode homologs. We further identify fibulin (FBL-1), a widely conserved ECM component , as critical for gonadal morphogenesis. FBL-1 is expressed in nongonadal tissues but is present at the surface of the elongating gonad. A fibulin deletion mutant has a wider than normal gonad as well as body size defects. We find that GON-1 and fibulin have antagonistic roles in controlling gonadal shape. Depletion of fbl-1, but not other ECM components, rescues gon-1 elongation defects, and removal of gon-1 rescues fbl-1 width defects. Therefore, the GON-1 protease normally promotes tissue elongation and expansion, whereas the fibulin ECM protein blocks these key morphogenetic processes. We suggest that control of organ shape by GON-1 and fibulin in C. elegans may provide a model for similar cellular processes, including vasculogenesis, in humans.