Purpose: To investigate sequence variations in the optineurin (OPTN) gene and their association with TNF-alpha polymorphisms in Japanese patients with glaucoma.
Methods: The OPTN gene was analyzed in blood samples from 629 Japanese subjects. There were 194 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 217 with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), and 218 with no eye disease (control subjects). The gene was screened for mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Genotyping of three polymorphisms of -308G-->A, -857C-->T, and -863C-->A in the TNF-alpha promoter region was performed. The associations between the genotypes and age, intraocular pressure (IOP), and visual field defects at the time of diagnosis were examined.
Results: A possible glaucoma-causing mutation, His26Asp, was identified in 1 of the 411 Japanese patients with glaucoma. A c.412G-->A (Thr34Thr) polymorphism in the OPTN gene was significantly associated with POAG (genotype frequency, P = 0.011; allele frequency, P = 0.003). The frequency of TNF-alpha/-857T and optineurin/412A carriers was significantly higher (P = 0.006) in patients with POAG than in control subjects. Among the patients with POAG who were carriers of TNF-alpha/-857T, the optineurin/412A carriers had significantly worse (P = 0.020) visual field scores than the non-optineurin/412A ones. The frequency of TNF-alpha/-863A and optineurin/603A (or Lys98) carriers was significantly higher in patients with POAG (P = 0.008) or NTG (P = 0.027) than in control subjects. Among the patients with POAG who were carriers of TNF-alpha/-863A, the ones with optineurin/603A (or Lys98) had significantly worse (P = 0.026) visual field scores than did those with non-optineurin/603A (or Lys98).
Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that the OPTN gene is associated with POAG rather than NTG in the Japanese. Statistical analysis showed a possible interaction between polymorphisms in the OPTN and the TNF-alpha genes that would increase the risk for glaucoma.