Smoking is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes but a decreased risk of autoimmune diabetes in adults: an 11-year follow-up of incidence of diabetes in the Nord-Trøndelag study

Diabetologia. 2004 Nov;47(11):1953-6. doi: 10.1007/s00125-004-1554-9. Epub 2004 Nov 19.


Aims/hypothesis: We compared the association between smoking habits and later occurrence of type 2 diabetes on the one hand and between smoking and diabetes with autoimmunity on the other hand.

Methods: We used data from a prospective study of 11-year cumulative incidence of diabetes in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey.

Results: Confirming previous reports, heavy smoking (>/=20 cigarettes per day) carried an increased relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes (n=738, RR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.12-2.39). In contrast, smoking reduced the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and of traditional type 1 diabetes (LADA n= 81, RR=0.25, 95% CI: 0.11-0.60; type 1 diabetes, n=18, RR=0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.73).

Conclusions/interpretations: The results indicate that nicotine influences autoimmune processes in human diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Norway / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Time Factors