The objectives were to evaluate the correlation between sleep onset as defined by the Oxford sleep resistance (OSLER) test and by simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and to determine the correlation between sleep latencies measured by the OSLER test and maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) performed on the same day. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary-care university-based sleep laboratory. Participants were 11 consecutive subjects presenting to the sleep center with clinical indications for nocturnal polysomnography and MWT. The interventions included MWT and OSLER test. Mean sleep latencies for the OSLER and MWT in each subject were closely correlated (ICC = 0.94, [Intra-class correlation]P < 0.05). Sleep latency by OSLER and simultaneous measurement of EEG also had excellent agreement (ICC = 0.91) with a bias of -0.97 min. The OSLER test is a practical and reliable tool for evaluating daytime sleepiness when compared with the MWT. No obvious systematic adaptation was seen during sequential OSLER test performance. Given its portability and minimal technical requirements, the OSLER test may be useful for large-scale applications in the evaluation of daytime wakefulness and vigilance.