Biodegradable polymer and particulate carriers have been shown to be of considerable potential for the delivery of peptides, proteins and DNA in animal models. In the context of vaccine delivery to the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the use of mucoadhesive agents offers a strategy for the facilitation of increased residence time and increased vaccine efficacy. Additional concerns addressed here include the potential of uptake of vaccine formulations by the primary olfactory nerves in the nasal cavity, effective delivery to the lung, strategies to maximise the immunopotentiation of candidate vaccine formulations, as well as the evaluation of animal models and interpretation of engendered immune responses in terms of antigen-specific antibody production. Experimental data are presented that demonstrate the potential of muco- and bioadhesive agents in combination with liposomes for intranasal (i.n.) delivery of tetanus toxoid in mice. A delivery system utilising chitosan for the formulation of microspheres by the spray-drying method is described and assessed for intranasal vaccine delivery, and porous particles with potential for pulmonary administration are also outlined.