A placebo controlled randomized trial of the effects of phenylpropanolamine and nicotine gum on cessation rates and postcessation weight gain in women

Addict Behav. 2005 Jan;30(1):61-75. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.04.013.


With smoking prevalence rates beginning to decline, studies designed to promote cessation in more challenging populations, like weight-concerned smokers, warrant attention. This study assessed the efficacy of two forms of pharmacotherapy [nicotine and phenylpropanolamine (PPA) gums] in addition to a 13-week cognitive behavioral smoking cessation program targeted for women. Participants were 439 females who met rigorous screening criteria and were randomized to one of the three treatment intervention groups (PPA gum, nicotine gum, or placebo gum). All participants attended a 13-week cognitive behavioral smoking cessation program and were given specific instructions on gum chewing. At posttest (13 weeks), and 6- and 12-month follow-ups, body weight and point prevalence abstinence were assessed. Analyses to determine potential differences between treatment groups on weight change and cessation rates were performed. Results indicated that neither change in body weight nor cessation rates significantly differed between groups. Attendance to sessions did appear to consistently increase the likelihood of quitting smoking at posttest and at each of the follow-ups. These results suggest that although the pharmacological interventions had no effect on cessation rates and postcessation weight gain, the behavioral component of the intervention was effective in increasing the odds of quitting smoking in weight-concerned women. Future efforts should focus on increasing adherence to behavioral program components, particularly session attendance.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite Depressants / pharmacology*
  • Chewing Gum
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / methods
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine / therapeutic use*
  • Phenylpropanolamine / pharmacology*
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology
  • Weight Gain / drug effects*


  • Appetite Depressants
  • Chewing Gum
  • Phenylpropanolamine
  • Nicotine