Objective: Histamine, a derivative of histidine, decreases food intake and body fat by activation of histamine neurons. Our objective was to clarify the effect of dietary histidine, in particular, on food intake and/or body fat accumulation in rats.
Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups after acclimation and allowed free access to diets containing 20% casein (0% histidine), 20% casein plus 1.0% histidine, 20% casein plus 2.5% histidine, or 20% casein plus 5% histidine for 8 d.
Results: Food intake and body weight were recorded daily and compared between groups. During the experimental period, food intake decreased according to the increases in dietary histidine. There was a negative and significant (P < 0.01) correlation between dietary histidine (grams per 8 d) and retroperitoneal fat pad (grams per 100 g of body weight). Uncoupling protein-1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue increased with increases in dietary histidine.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that dietary histidine suppresses food intake and fat accumulation in rats.