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Review
, 372-89

Supportive Care

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Review

Supportive Care

John R Wingard et al. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program.

Abstract

To optimize treatment outcomes for hematologic malignancies, minimizing the consequences of treatment complications requires as much skill as the choice of the treatment itself. Myelosuppression and immunosuppression are frequent complications and have potentially serious infectious consequences. Invasive fungal infections and infections from respiratory viruses are increasing in frequency and have life-threatening potential. Damage to vital organs, especially the liver, is another important concern. In this chapter, the scope of invasive fungal and respiratory viral infections, recent insights into the pathogenesis of hepatic sinusoidal injury, and recent developments that impact prevention and treatment approaches for these complications are described. In Section I, Dr. John Wingard describes the advantages and disadvantages of various treatment options for invasive infections by the two chief fungal pathogens, Candida and Aspergillus. Adjunctive therapies and practical considerations that clinicians should weigh in choosing one or another of the various agents are discussed. The studies that have evaluated antifungal prophylaxis and empirical treatment strategies are reviewed. Finally, new approaches such as combination therapy, new diagnostics, and efforts to bolster host immunity are considered. In Section II, Dr. W. Garrett Nichols describes the epidemiology of community-acquired respiratory viruses (CRV) in patients with hematologic malignancies. Risk factors, clinical syndromes, and possible indirect effects of CRV infections are discussed. Treatment and prevention options are reviewed. In Section III, Dr. George McDonald describes sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (once known as hepatic veno-occlusive disease). Recent insights into pathogenesis are described. Diagnostic criteria and the advantages and disadvantages of various diagnostic methods are reviewed and prognosis is considered. Prevention and treatment options are discussed.

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