Alterations in chromosome number (aneuploidy) are common in human neoplasias. Loss of mitotic regulation is believed to induce aneuploidy in cancer cells and act as a driving force during the malignant progression. The serine/theronine protein kinases of aurora family genes play a critical role in the regulation of key cell cycle processes. Aurora B mediates chromosome segregation by ensuring orientation of sister chromatids and overexpression of Aurora B in diploid human cells NHDF (normal human diploid fibroblast) induces multinuclearity. We analyzed Aurora B expression in human thyroid carcinomas. Cell lines originating from different histotypes showed an increase in Aurora B expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of archive samples showed a high expression of Aurora B in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas; conversely, Aurora B expression was not detectable in normal thyroid tissue. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed a strong expression of Aurora B in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. The block of Aurora B expression induced by RNA interference or by using an inhibitor of Aurora kinase activity significantly reduced the growth of thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells.