The present research was designed to investigate the adjustment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and their families as well as the relationship between adjustment and physician perceptions of compliance with CF treatment. Patient and family adjustment was assessed by means of the Personality Inventory for Children as well as measures of marital adjustment, depression, and social isolation completed by mothers of CF patients. Results indicated no characteristic pattern of psychopathology or adjustment problems. However, higher levels of perceived compliance with CF treatment were found to be associated with less satisfactory marital relationships and with less frequent maternal social contacts. These findings are discussed in terms of achieving a balance between compliance and psychological adjustment.