Purpose: To describe the clinical characteristics of a Y-sutural cataract associated with myopia in a large Chinese family and to identify the causative gene and mutation.
Methods: An autosomal dominant Y-sutural cataract and myopia were identified in members of a large family of Han ethnicity living in southern China. Ophthalmological examinations were performed and a medical history was taken. Blood samples were collected for DNA isolation. A genome wide scan was performed using markers spaced at about 10 cM intervals for genotyping and two point linkage analysis. Candidate genes were sequenced.
Results: Bilateral lens opacities, the only sign of cataract in early childhood and the most prominent sign in all affected individuals, involved the entire anterior Y and posterior inverted Y sutures, showing a feather duster like appearance. The Y-sutural cataract in this family mapped to an 11.4 cM (13.5 Mb) region between D3S3606 and D3S1309 on chromosome 3q22 with a maximum lod score of 5.7 at theta=0 for D3S1292. Sequence analysis of the beaded filament structural protein 2 (BFSP2) gene identified a previously described c.697_699delGAA (E233del) mutation which was present in all individuals with Y-sutural cataract but not in unaffected individuals and controls. Myopia, observed in 10 out of 12 cataract patients and significantly higher than that in unaffected offspring and siblings (1 out of 8), was independently mapped to a 61.2 cM (59 Mb) region between D3S3606 and D3S1262 on 3q21.3-q27.2 with maximum lod score of 3.79.
Conclusions: This Y-sutural cataract is caused by an E233del mutation in BFSP2 which provides additional evidence supporting mutations in BFSP2 as a cause for cataract and demonstrates phenotypic variability in cataracts caused by BFSP2. The Y-sutural opacity in the lens might be the typical and earliest sign for cataract caused by the BFSP2 mutation. In addition, these results demonstrate a myopia susceptibility locus in this region, which might also be associated with the mutation in BFSP2.