Rickettsial and ehrlichial infections are both carried by arthropod vectors. Both Rickettsia and Ehrlichia are small intracellular gram-negative coccobacilli. Clinical manifestations of Rickettsia range from spotted fevers to various forms of typhus. Human ehrlichiosis can present as monocytic ehrlichiosis or granulocytic anaplasmosis. Prevention is by avoidance of the responsible vectors. Therapy is usually with doxycycline, but chloramphenicol can also be used.