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, 111 (1-2), 79-116

Interfacially Formed Organized Planar Inorganic, Polymeric and Composite Nanostructures


Interfacially Formed Organized Planar Inorganic, Polymeric and Composite Nanostructures

Gennady B Khomutov. Adv Colloid Interface Sci.


This paper discusses synthetic strategies for fabrication of new organized planar inorganic, polymeric, composite and bio-inorganic nanostructures by methods based on chemical reactions and physical interactions at the gas-liquid interface, Langmuir monolayer technique, interfacial ligand exchange and substitution reactions, self-assembling and self-organization processes, DNA templating and scaffolding. Stable reproducible planar assemblies of ligand-stabilized molecular nanoclusters containing definite number of atoms have been formed on solid substrate surfaces via preparation and deposition of mixed Langmuir monolayers composed by nanocluster and surfactant molecules. A novel approach to synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles and to formation of self-organized planar inorganic nanostructures has been introduced. In that approach, nanoparticles and nanostructures are fabricated via decomposition of insoluble metal-organic precursor compounds in a layer at the gas-liquid interface. The ultimately thin and anisotropic dynamic monomolecular reaction system was realized in that approach with quasi-two-dimensional growth and organization of nanoparticles and nanostructures in the plain of Langmuir monolayer. Photochemical and redox reactions were used to initiate processes of interfacial nucleation and growth of inorganic phase. It has been demonstrated that morphology of resulting inorganic nanostructures can be controlled efficiently by variations of growth conditions via changes in state and composition of interfacial planar reaction media, and by variations of composition of adjacent bulk phases. Planar arrays and chains of iron oxide and ultrasmall noble metal (Au and Pd) nanoparticles, nanowires and new organized planar disk, ring, net-like, labyrinth and very high-surface area nanostructures were obtained by methods based on that approach. Highly organized monomolecular polymeric films on solid substrates were obtained via deposition of Langmuir monolayer formed by water-insoluble amphiphilic polycation molecules. Corresponding nanoscale-ordered planar polymeric nanocomposite films with incorporated ligand-stabilized molecular metallic nanoclusters and interfacially grown nanoparticles were fabricated successfully. Novel planar DNA complexes with amphiphilic polycation monolayer were formed at the gas-aqueous phase interface and then deposited on solid substrates. Toroidal and new net-like conformations were discovered in those complexes. Nanoscale supramolecular organization of the complexes was dependent on cationic amphiphile monolayer state during the DNA binding. These monolayer and multilayer DNA/amphiphilic polycation complex Langmuir-Blodgett films were used as templates and nanoreactors for generation of inorganic nanostructures via metal cation binding with DNA and following inorganic phase growth reactions. As a result, ultrathin polymeric nanocomposite films with integrated DNA building blocks and organized inorganic semiconductor (CdS) and iron oxide quasi-linear nanostructures were formed. It has been demonstrated that interaction of deposited planar DNA/amphiphilic polycation complexes with bulk phase colloid inorganic cationic ligands (CdSe nano-rods) can result in formation of new highly organized hybrid bio-inorganic nanostructures via interfacial ligand exchange and self-organization processes. The methods developed can be useful for investigation of fundamental mechanisms of nanoscale structural organization and transformation processes in various inorganic and molecular systems including bio-molecular and bio-inorganic nanostructures. Also, those methods are relatively simple, environmentally safe and thus could prove to be efficient practical instruments of molecular nanotechnology with potential of design and cost-effective fabrication of new controlled-morphology organized planar inorganic and composite nanostructured materials. Possible applications of obtained nanostructures and future developments are also discussed.

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