By generating peptides from intracellular antigens, which are then presented to T cells, the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays a central role in the cellular immune response. Under the control of interferon-gamma the proteolytic properties of the proteasome are adapted to the requirements of the immune system. Interferon-gamma induces the formation of immunoproteasomes and the synthesis of the proteasome activator PA28. Both alter the proteolytic properties of the proteasome complex and enhance proteasomal function in antigen presentation. Thus, a combination of several of regulatory events tunes the proteasome system for maximal efficiency in the generation of MHC class I antigens.