SLC26A6 (PAT1, CFEX) is an anion exchanger that is expressed on the apical membrane of the kidney proximal tubule and the small intestine. Modes of transport mediated by SLC26A6 include Cl-/formate exchange, Cl-/HCO3- exchange, and Cl-/oxalate exchange. To study its role in kidney and intestinal physiology, gene targeting was used to prepare mice lacking Slc26a6. Homozygous mutant Slc26a6-/- mice appeared healthy and exhibited a normal blood pressure, kidney function, and plasma electrolyte profile. In proximal tubules microperfused with a low-HCO3-/high-Cl- solution, the baseline rate of fluid absorption (Jv), an index of NaCl transport under these conditions, was the same in wild-type and null mice. However, the stimulation of Jv by oxalate observed in wild-type mice was completely abolished in Slc26a6-null mice (P<0.05). Formate stimulation of Jv was partially reduced in null mice, but the difference from the response in wild-type mice did not reach statistical significance. Apical membrane Cl-/base exchange activity, assayed with the pH-sensitive dye BCPCF in microperfused proximal tubules, was decreased by 58% in Slc26a6-/- animals (P<0.001 vs. wild types). In the duodenum, the baseline rate of HCO3- secretion measured in mucosal tissue mounted in Ussing chambers was decreased by approximately 30% (P<0.03), whereas the forskolin-stimulated component of HCO3- secretion was the same in wild-type and Slc26a6-/- mice. We conclude that Slc26a6 mediates oxalate-stimulated NaCl absorption, contributes to apical membrane Cl-/base exchange in the kidney proximal tubule, and also plays an important role in HCO3- secretion in the duodenum.