Anemia and erythrocytosis (PTE) are common after kidney transplantation. We sought to determine the influence of sirolimus compared to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on post-transplant erythropoiesis. A total of 214 patients with recent kidney or kidney-pancreas transplants were treated with either sirolimus-based (n = 87) or MMF-based (n = 127) therapy. At 12 months, the prevalence of anemia was 31% with MMF and 57% with sirolimus (p < 0.001). Linear regression was used to examine the independent influence of sirolimus on hemoglobin at 12 months, controlling for multiple factors including gender and renal function. Sirolimus remained a significant correlate of lower hemoglobin in all patients (slope =-1.060, 95% CI: -1.76 to -0.362, p = 0.003), and in patients without PTE (slope =-0.671, 95% CI: -1.32 to -0.028, p = 0.041). PTE, defined as a persistent hematocrit above 51%, occurred in 19% with MMF and 7% with sirolimus (p = 0.013). PTE was examined using logistic regression analysis. Sirolimus use correlated negatively with PTE (odds ratio with sirolimus = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.89, p = 0.028). Our results indicate that, compared to treatment with MMF, treatment of kidney or kidney-pancreas recipients with sirolimus is associated with a higher prevalence of anemia, lower hemoglobin levels and lower incidence of PTE.