Urine samples were assayed for urinary schistosomiasis in four local government areas (LGA) of Imo State, Nigeria between May 1998 and September 2000. A total of 3504 persons were sampled, with 880 (25.1%) being positive for urinary schistosomiasis, based on records of eggs of Schistosoma haematobium. The prevalence of S. haematobium infection differed in the various LGAs, with Oguta (38.9%) and Owerri-West (10.4%) showing the highest and the lowest values, respectively. Prevalence was higher in males (67.4%) than in females (32.6%) and in subjects 11-20 years of age (31.5%), while prevalence varied among different occupational groups, with farmers ranking the highest (41.6%). Visible haematuria was the predominant symptom (P<0.05). Of 880 persons positive for eggs of S. haematobium, 452 (51.4%) had visible haematuria, followed by suprapubic pains 214 (24.3%) and painful micturition 97 (11.0%). Although 367 (10. 5%) of the sampled subjects with eggs of S. haematobium showed no visible haematuria, 513 (14.6%) clearly demonstrated haematuria.