Studies on interactions between functional foods or dietary supplements and medicines. IV. Effects of ginkgo biloba leaf extract on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nifedipine in healthy volunteers

Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Dec;27(12):2006-9. doi: 10.1248/bpb.27.2006.


The effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE), a widely used herbal dietary supplement in Japan, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nifedipine (NFP), a calcium-channel blocker, were studied using 8 healthy volunteers. Simultaneous oral ingestion of GBE (240 mg) did not significantly affect any of the mean pharmacokinetic parameters of either NFP or dehydronifedipine, a major metabolite of NFP, after oral administration of NFP (10 mg). However, the maximal plasma NFP concentrations in 2 subjects were approximately doubled by GBE, and they had severer and longer-lasting headaches with GBE than without GBE, with dizziness or hot flushes in combination with GBE. The mean heart rate after oral administration of NFP with GBE tended to be faster than that without GBE at every time point. Accordingly, it was concluded that GBE and NFP should not be simultaneously ingested as much as possible, and careful monitoring is needed when administering NFP concomitantly with GBE to humans.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Food-Drug Interactions / physiology*
  • Ginkgo biloba*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nifedipine / administration & dosage
  • Nifedipine / metabolism*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / metabolism
  • Plant Leaves


  • Plant Extracts
  • Nifedipine