Components of energy balance are important elements associated with colorectal cancer risk. In this study we examine the association between VDR genotypes, BMI, physical activity, and energy intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Data from a population-based case-control study of colon (1174 cases and 1174 controls) and rectal (785 cases and 1000 controls) cancer was used to evaluate the associations. The Bsm1, polyA, and Fok1 VDR polymorphisms were evaluated. For colon cancer, those who are obese were at greater risk of colon cancer if they had the SS or BB (OR = 3.50; 95% CI = 1.75-7.03; p interaction 0.03) or ff (OR = 2.62; 95% CI = 1.15-5.99; p interaction 0.12/) VDR genotypes. On the other hand, those who were least physically active were at greater risk of colon cancer if they had the ff VDR genotype (OR = 3.46; 95% CI = 1.58-7.58; p interaction 0.05). The association between energy intake and colon cancer appears to be driven more by energy intake than Bsm1 or polyA VDR genotypes, although there was a significant interaction between the Fok1 VDR polymorphism and energy intake and risk of both colon and rectal cancer (p interaction 0.01 for colon and 0.04 for rectal). These data suggest a relationship between VDR genotype and factors related to energy balance in modifying colorectal cancer risk.