Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses

Nat Med. 2004 Dec;10(12 Suppl):S122-9. doi: 10.1038/nm1145.


The optimism of the early period of antimicrobial discovery has been tempered by the emergence of bacterial strains with resistance to these therapeutics. Today, clinically important bacteria are characterized not only by single drug resistance but also by multiple antibiotic resistance--the legacy of past decades of antimicrobial use and misuse. Drug resistance presents an ever-increasing global public health threat that involves all major microbial pathogens and antimicrobial drugs.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Public Health


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Infective Agents