Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses

Nat Med. 2004 Dec;10(12 Suppl):S98-109. doi: 10.1038/nm1144.


Mosquito-borne flaviviruses provide some of the most important examples of emerging and resurging diseases of global significance. Here, we describe three of them: the resurgence of dengue in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, and the spread and establishment of Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses in new habitats and environments. These three examples also illustrate the complexity of the various factors that contribute to their emergence, resurgence and spread. Whereas some of these factors are natural, such as bird migration, most are due to human activities, such as changes in land use, water impoundments and transportation, which result in changed epidemiological patterns. The three examples also show the ease with which mosquito-borne viruses can spread to and colonize new areas, and the need for continued international surveillance and improved public health infrastructure to meet future emerging disease threats.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aedes
  • Animals
  • Dengue / transmission*
  • Dengue / virology*
  • Dengue Virus / genetics*
  • Encephalitis, Japanese / transmission*
  • Encephalitis, Japanese / virology*
  • Flavivirus / genetics*
  • Flavivirus Infections / transmission*
  • Flavivirus Infections / virology*
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Phylogeny
  • West Nile Fever / transmission*
  • West Nile virus / genetics*