Probiotic bacteria stimulate virus-specific neutralizing antibodies following a booster polio vaccination

Eur J Nutr. 2005 Oct;44(7):406-13. doi: 10.1007/s00394-004-0541-8. Epub 2004 Dec 1.


Background: Orally ingested probiotic bacteria may modulate the immune response and increase antibody titers against enteric infections by bacteria or viruses. Even though positive effects of probiotics on respiratory tract infections have been reported, overall only few studies have examined effects on virus infections concerning organs other than the gastrointestinal tract.

Aim of the study: It was the aim of the study to investigate whether and how probiotics affect the immune response to a standardized enterovirus challenge (polio) and infections not limited to the gastrointestinal tract in healthy adults.

Methods: In a randomized, controlled and double-blind study 64 volunteers consumed for 5 weeks chemically acidified clotted milk without bacteria or with 10(10)/serving (Lactobacillus rhamnosus ) GG or Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL431 added. In the second week subjects were vaccinated orally against polio 1, 2 and 3. Polio virus neutralizing serum activity, the primary parameter, was determined by the standard neutralization test (WHO) before and three times after vaccination. Polio-specific IgA, IgG and IgM were detected by ELISAs.

Results: Probiotics increased poliovirus neutralizing antibody titers (NT) and affected the formation of poliovirus-specific IgA and IgG in serum. The maximum increase after immunization was about 2, 2.2, or 4-fold higher, respectively, for NT, IgG or, IgA, in volunteers consuming probiotics instead of placebo. No consistent difference was noted between bacterial strains.

Conclusions: Probiotics induce an immunologic response that may provide enhanced systemic protection of cells from virus infections by increasing production of virus neutralizing antibodies.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Secondary
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Immunoglobulin A / immunology
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Immunoglobulin M / blood
  • Immunoglobulin M / immunology
  • Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus / immunology
  • Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus / physiology*
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus / immunology
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus / physiology*
  • Male
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Poliomyelitis / prevention & control
  • Poliovirus / immunology*
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral / immunology*
  • Probiotics*
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral
  • Viral Vaccines