The serum concentration and urinary excretion of four potential stone constituents: calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and uric acid; and of two potential inhibitors of urinary stone formation, citrate and magnesium, were studied before and during ingestion of a carbonated cola beverage. Four participants, after baseline serum determinations, abstained for forty-eight hours from cola consumption and then attempted to drink 3 quarts per day of cola in the following forty-eight hours. One participant failed to drink more than two quarts per day of cola. In all 4 participants twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of magnesium decreased by an average of 2.6 mg. In the 3 participants who succeeded in drinking 3 quarts of cola per day, twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of oxalate increased an average of 8.3 mg and excretion of citrate decreased an average of 122 mg. These results demonstrate changes in urine constituents which could contribute to enhanced kidney stone formation in patients who drink large quantities of cola-flavored carbonated beverages.