The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), established in 1996 as a special Health Authority for England and Wales, provides the United Kingdom medical community with robust and reliable guidance on current "best practices" in medicine. Based on analyses of clinical efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness, clinical guideline recommendations are developed in an attempt to standardize treatment of various diseases and medical conditions. To date, NICE has issued guidance for the use of three chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer: paclitaxel, topotecan, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. NICE guidance recommends surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel/platinum combination therapy or platinum therapy alone as first-line treatment for ovarian cancer. NICE has also issued guidance recommending the use of topotecan or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as second-line agents for the treatment of women with relapsed or refractory disease. Accounting for all available data, NICE guidance supports the appropriate roles of paclitaxel, topotecan, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer.