Several studies provide evidence for the anti-carcinogenic activity of resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in grapes and berries, but the precise mechanisms involved in the modulation of prostate carcinogenesis by resveratrol remain to be elucidated. The inhibitory effects induced by resveratrol in human prostate cancer cells impact diverse cellular mechanisms associated with tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. In our earlier studies with prostate cancer cells using cDNA microarray analysis, we indicated the importance of p53-mediated molecular targets of resveratrol. The present study based on two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-SDS-PAGE) followed by mass spectrometry analysis of human prostate cells that have been treated with resveratrol clearly identifies the role of phosphoglycerate mutase B. For the first time, we report on phosphoglycerate mutase B in the resveratrol-treated prostate cancer cells LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 at the transcription level. Our observations raise the possibility of its effect on metabolic enzymes in cancer cells without affecting the normal cells.