The expression/function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor 2 (VEGFR-2/KDR) in multiple myeloma (MM)-associated angiogenesis is under scrutiny. We show here that bone marrow endothelial cells (EC) from 16 patients with MM (MMEC) highly expressed VEGF-A (the main VEGF isoform) and VEGFR-2 at both mRNA and protein level, whereas EC from 14 patients with monoclonal gammopathy unassociated/unattributable (MG[u]) (MG[u]EC) and 12 human umbilical veins (HUVEC) expressed very low mRNAs and/or proteins. MMEC showed constitutive autophosphorylation in both VEGFR-2 and the associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2), whereas this was marginal in MG[u]EC and HUVEC. MMEC proliferated rapidly and formed a closely-knit capillary meshwork on Matrigel. These cell functions were reduced in the other EC. Autophosphorylation, proliferation and capillarogenesis were prevented by a neutralizing anti-VEGF-A antibody, and more efficaciously by an anti-VEGFR-2 antibody. Both antibodies had no effect or were poorly effective on the other EC. These findings as a whole suggest the existence of an autocrine loop of VEGF in MMEC. Since this is very likely a mechanism for the amplification of VEGF activity in neovascularization, it would constitute an appropriate target for antiangiogenic management in MM.