Members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family regulate the activation, differentiation, and function of many cell types, including cells of the immune system. TNFR-associated factors (TRAFs) function as adapter molecules controlling signaling pathways triggered by TNFR family members, such as activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). Despite intensive research, the function of TRAF4 in signaling pathways triggered by TNFR-related proteins remains enigmatic. Intriguingly, our functional studies indicated that TRAF4 augments NF-kappaB activation triggered by glucocorticoid-induced TNFR (GITR), a receptor expressed on T cells, B cells, and macrophages. Further analyses revealed that TRAF4-mediated NF-kappaB activation downstream of GITR depends on a previously mapped TRAF-binding site in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor and is inhibited by the cytoplasmic protein A20. GITR is thought to inhibit the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and to promote activation of T cells. Taken together, our studies provide the first indications that TRAF4 elaborates GITR signaling and suggest that TRAF4 can modulate the suppressive functions of Treg cells.