We report the case of a 65 year old man, with a history of recurrent urolithiasis, who was referred for an acute renal failure. Investigations deny obstructive or glomerular involvement. 2,8-Dihydroxyadeninuria was diagnosed with the help of crystalluria. This rare metabolic disease is due to a deficiency of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, a purine salvage enzyme. Allopurinol, a low purine diet and high fluid intake made possible the nearly entire regression of renal failure.