Objective: Both AIDS and cervical neoplasia (CN) can result from sexual transmission of HIV infection and may affect similar groups of women. Available data on the association between AIDS and CN have practical implications for gynecological care. We review these data to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the association between CN and HIV infection.
Design: Twenty-one studies were reviewed, including reports and abstracts published from January 1986 to July 1990. Of these, five included a comparison group and had sufficient data for inclusion in the analysis.
Results: All five controlled studies reported a significant association between HIV infection and CN. One included women with both intraepithelial and invasive lesions; the other four considered women with intraepithelial lesions only. The summary odds ratio indicated that the odds of HIV-infected women having CN are 4.9 (95% confidence interval, 3.0-8.2) times that of HIV-negative women.
Conclusions: Research is needed to clarify etiological relationships and the role of human papillomavirus in the causal pathway of the observed association. Meanwhile, available data are sufficient to encourage regular Papanicolaou's smear screening of HIV-infected women, and HIV testing and counseling of women with CN considered at risk for HIV infection.