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. Sep-Oct 2004;10(9-10):1566-76.
doi: 10.1089/ten.2004.10.1566.

Three-dimensional Bioassembly Tool for Generating Viable Tissue-Engineered Constructs

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Three-dimensional Bioassembly Tool for Generating Viable Tissue-Engineered Constructs

Cynthia M Smith et al. Tissue Eng. .

Abstract

The primary emphasis of tissue engineering is the design and fabrication of constructs for the replacement of nonfunctional tissue. Because tissue represents a highly organized interplay of cells and extracellular matrix, the fabrication of replacement tissue should mimic this spatial organization. This report details studies evaluating the use of a three-dimensional, direct-write cell deposition system to construct spatially organized viable structures. A direct-write bioassembly system was designed and fabricated to permit layer-by-layer placement of cells and extracellular matrix on a variety of material substrates. Human fibroblasts suspended in polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene were coextruded through a positive displacement pen delivery onto a polystyrene slide. After deposition, approximately 60% of the fibroblasts remained viable. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) suspended in soluble collagen type I were coextruded via microdispense pen delivery onto the hydrophilic side of flat sheets of polyethylene terephthalate. After deposition with a 25-gauge tip, approximately 86% of the BAECs were viable. When maintained in culture for up to 35 days, the constructs remained viable and maintained their original spatial organization. These results indicate the potential for utilizing a direct-write, three-dimensional bioassembly tool to create viable, patterned tissue-engineered constructs.

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