Identification of promethin and PGLP as two novel up-regulated genes in PPARgamma1-induced adipogenic mouse liver

Biochimie. 2004 Nov;86(11):743-61. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2004.09.015.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms, alpha, gamma and beta/delta, function as important lipid sensors as well as key regulators of energy homeostasis. PPARalpha plays a dynamic role in energy combustion by transcriptionally upregulating fatty acid oxidation systems primarily in liver, whereas PPARgamma functions as a regulator of adipogenesis and lipid storage. Overexpression of PPARgamma, using adenoviral expression approach, in PPARalpha deficient mouse liver results in hepatic steatosis with concurrent expression of adipocyte specific genes. In this study, to gain a global molecular understanding of PPARgamma1-induced gene expression in liver, we have analyzed gene expression profiles using the Affymetrix GeneChip mouse expression array set 430, that enables a comprehensive gene expression profiling with >39,000 transcripts. Microarray data analysis provided us with over 278 genes up-regulated fourfold or higher, and 121 genes down-regulated fourfold or higher in liver with PPARgamma-induced hepatic adiposis. We have found 101 uncharacterized genes out of 278 up-regulated and 29 uncharacterized among the down-regulated gene categories, respectively. Of 177 functionally characterized candidate genes in the up-regulated category many appear to be involved in adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and signal transduction. To focus attention on the uncharacterized genes in the up-regulated category, we cloned the full-length cDNAs of two novel candidates, which we designated as promethin and PGLP. Promethin, a 15-kDa cytosolic protein, is not normally expressed in liver but induced robustly in liver with hepatic adiposis caused by PPARgamma overexpression. PGLP, which encodes a 38 kDa cytoplasmic membranous protein, is a low abundant transcript in normal liver, but induced dramatically following PPARgamma overexpression. The expression of these two genes was not increased in fatty livers induced by fasting or choline deficiency. The identification of these and other novel PPARgamma-target genes should provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying energy storage and lipid homeostasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adipocytes / metabolism*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • Fatty Liver / genetics
  • Fatty Liver / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Organ Specificity
  • PPAR alpha / genetics
  • PPAR gamma / biosynthesis
  • PPAR gamma / genetics*
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Up-Regulation / physiology


  • DNA, Complementary
  • Membrane Proteins
  • PGLP protein, mouse
  • PPAR alpha
  • PPAR gamma
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Proteins
  • promethin protein, mouse

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AY167031
  • GENBANK/AY278956