Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the primary treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), including the role of dose escalation above 66 Gy level.
Methods and materials: Between July 2000 and September 2002, 63 newly diagnosed NPC patients were treated with IMRT. The disease was Stage I in 9 (14%), Stage II in 18 (29%), Stage III in 22 (35%), and Stage IV in 14 (22%). The prescribed dose was 66 Gy to the gross tumor volume (GTV) and positive neck nodes, 60 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV), and 54-60 Gy to the clinically negative neck. All 20 (100%) patients with T1-2a tumors received intracavitary brachytherapy (ICB) boost, and 15/42 (36%) patients with T2b-T4 tumors received conformal boost (8 Gy/4 fractions). Nineteen patients with advanced stage disease also received either neoadjuvant or concurrent chemotherapy. Acute and late normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS), nodal relapse-free survival (NRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Results: With a median follow-up of 29 months (range 8-45 months), 4 patients developed local in-field failure, 1 patient developed regional relapse, and 13 patients developed distant metastases. All 4 patients with local failure had either T3 or T4 disease before primary treatment and did not have ICB or conformal boost. The 3-year actuarial LRFS, NRFS, DMFS, and OS were 92%, 98%, 79%, and 90%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that dose escalation above 66 Gy was significantly associated with better PFS and DMFS, whereas GTV size was a significant adverse factor for OS. The worst acute mucositis was Grade 1 or 2 in 36 (59%), and Grade 3 in 25 (41%) patients. Acute dysphagia requiring tube feeding occurred in 5 (8%) patients. The proportion of patients with Grade 2-3 xerostomia was 57% at 3 months, and 23% at 2 years after IMRT. Within the subset of patients with a mean parotid dose of <31 Gy, the proportions with Grade 2-3 xerostomia were 30% and 17% at 3 months and 2 years, respectively.
Conclusion: Our experience of using IMRT in the primary treatment of NPC showed a very high rate of locoregional control and favorable toxicity profile. Furthermore, we found that dose escalation above 66 Gy of IMRT-based therapy was a significant determinant of progression-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival for advanced T-stage tumors. Distant metastases represent the predominant mode of treatment failure.