Reported here is the case of a patient with underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in whom ciprofloxacin treatment of a lower respiratory tract infection failed subsequent to ciprofloxacin treatment of an exacerbation of COPD several weeks earlier. During the second course of ciprofloxacin therapy, the patient's condition continued to deteriorate, and she was admitted to the intensive care unit. Bilateral pneumonia was diagnosed. Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 11A, resistant to ciprofloxacin was isolated from the sputum. Sequencing revealed a S79F mutation in parC and there was evidence of an efflux pump. The patient improved rapidly after administration of azithromycin and ampicillin/sulbactam. This report of treatment failure due to ciprofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae shows that fluoroquinolones should be avoided when treating patients who have recently received this class of antibiotics.