Although somatic mutations in a number of genes have been associated with development of human tumors, such as lipomas, relatively few examples exist of germline mutations in these genes. Here we describe an 8-year-old boy who has a de novo pericentric inversion of chromosome 12, with breakpoints at p11.22 and q14.3, and a phenotype including extreme somatic overgrowth, advanced endochondral bone and dental ages, a cerebellar tumor, and multiple lipomas. His chromosomal inversion was found to truncate HMGA2, a gene that encodes an architectural factor involved in the etiology of many benign mesenchymal tumors and that maps to the 12q14.3 breakpoint. Similar truncations of murine Hmga2 in transgenic mice result in somatic overgrowth and, in particular, increased abundance of fat and lipomas, features strikingly similar to those observed in the child. This represents the first report of a constitutional rearrangement affecting HMGA2 and demonstrates the role of this gene in human growth and development. Systematic genetic analysis and clinical studies of this child may offer unique insights into the role of HMGA2 in adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and general growth control.