Detection of and response to microbial infections by the immune system depends largely on a family of pattern-recognition receptors called Toll-like receptors (TLRs). These receptors recognize conserved molecular products derived from various classes of pathogens, including Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, DNA and RNA viruses, fungi and protozoa. Recognition of ligands by TLRs leads to a series of signaling events resulting in induction of acute responses necessary to kill the pathogen. TLRs are also responsible for the induction of dendritic cell maturation, which is responsible and necessary for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Although TLRs control induction of adaptive immunity, it is not clear at this point how responses are appropriately tailored by individual TLRs to the advantage of the host.