The BCR/ABL fusion tyrosine kinase activates various intracellular signaling pathways, thus causing chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Here we demonstrate that the inducible expression of BCR/ABL in a murine hematopoietic cell line, TonB210, leads to the activation of the Ras family small GTPase Rap1, which is inhibited by the ABL kinase inhibitor imatinib. The Rap1 activity in a CML cell line, K562, was also inhibited by imatinib. Inhibition of Rap1 activation by a dominant negative mutant of Rap1, Rap1-N17, or SPA-1 inhibited the BCR/ABL-induced activation of Elk-1. BCR/ABL also activated in a kinase activity-dependent manner the B-Raf kinase, which is an effector molecule of Rap1 and a potent activator of the MEK/Erk/Elk-1 signaling pathway. Together, these data suggest that, in addition to the well-established Ras/Raf-1 pathway, BCR/ABL activates the alternative signaling pathway involving Rap1 and B-Raf to activate Erk, which may play important roles in leukemogenesis.