The chromosomal localizations of two closely related human DNA repair genes, HHR6A and HHR6B, were determined by in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes. HHR6A and HHR6B (human homolog of yeast RAD6) encode ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2 enzymes), likely to be involved in postreplication repair and induced mutagenesis. The HHR6B gene was assigned to human chromosome 5q23-q31, whereas the HHR6A gene was localized on the human X chromosome (Xq24-q25). This latter assignment was confirmed with an X-specific human-mouse/hamster somatic cell hybrid panel. Southern blot analysis points to an X and an autosomal localization of HHR6A and HHR6B, respectively, in the mouse. The potential involvement of these genes in human genetic disorders is discussed.