HMG-I and its isoform HMG-Y are members of the abundant high-mobility-group of nonhistone chromatin proteins; they bind to A + T-rich regions of chromosomal DNA and are expressed at high levels in rapidly dividing, undifferentiated mammalian cells. HMG-I and HMG-Y are alternatively spliced products of a single functional gene, designated Hmgi in the mouse. Here, we report the occurrence of at least three distinct Hmgi-related loci in the mouse. Only one of these loci was present in all of the 10 mouse strains examined; therefore, this locus most likely represents the transcriptionally active, functional gene, Hmgi. Genetic linkage analysis of interspecific and intersubspecific backcrosses showed that Hmgi is located in the t-complex region of mouse Chromosome 17. Two additional Hmgi-related sequences, Hmgi-rs1 and Hmgi-rs2, were found only in certain mouse strains and probably represent pseudogenes. Hmgi-rs1 is located on Chromosome 11; it was present in all of the standard laboratory inbred mouse strains examined but was absent in wild-derived inbred strains of Mus spretus, M. musculus castaneus, and M. m. molossinus. Hmgi-rs2 was found only in M. m. castaneus and is located on Chromosome 6. Hmgi genes have not been previously mapped in any species, but the location of the probable functional gene on murine Chromosome 17 suggests that the homologous gene in humans is located on Chromosome 6.