Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family members have overlapping, antagonistic, and distinct roles in Arabidopsis development

Plant Cell. 2005 Jan;17(1):61-76. doi: 10.1105/tpc.104.026161. Epub 2004 Dec 14.


The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains five class III homeodomain-leucine zipper genes. We have isolated loss-of-function alleles for each family member for use in genetic analysis. This gene family regulates apical embryo patterning, embryonic shoot meristem formation, organ polarity, vascular development, and meristem function. Genetic analyses revealed a complex pattern of overlapping functions, some of which are not readily inferred by phylogenetic relationships or by gene expression patterns. The PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA genes perform overlapping functions with REVOLUTA, whereas the PHABULOSA, PHAVOLUTA, and CORONA/ATHB15 genes perform overlapping functions distinct from REVOLUTA. Furthermore, ATHB8 and CORONA encode functions that are both antagonistic to those of REVOLUTA within certain tissues and overlapping with REVOLUTA in other tissues. Differences in expression patterns explain some of these genetic interactions, whereas other interactions are likely attributable to differences in protein function as indicated by cross-complementation studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / genetics*
  • Genes, Homeobox / genetics*
  • Genome, Plant
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics*
  • Leucine Zippers / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multigene Family / genetics
  • Multigene Family / physiology
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Shoots / embryology
  • Plant Shoots / genetics
  • Plant Shoots / growth & development
  • Seeds / genetics
  • Seeds / growth & development


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB005246
  • GENBANK/AC003096
  • GENBANK/AC006216
  • GENBANK/AC009917
  • GENBANK/AL049915