Mortality from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is often due to cardiac causes. Although cardiovascular complications of ESRD have long been recognized, only recently has the presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors been associated with late cardiovascular complications. This review presents a history of cardiac involvement in ESRD, the pathophysiology of accelerated atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy, and a summary of the literature on cardiovascular risk assessment in children. Techniques for non-invasive assessment of cardiac end-organ injury are also discussed. Recommendations for monitoring of risk factors and treatment in the pediatric ESRD population are presented.