Two temporary Escherichia coli O group strains OX3 and OX7 are given permanent status as O174 and O175, respectively. Both these test strains were originally isolated from cases of human diarrhoea. Whereas the O174 strain is negative for known virulence genes, the O175 strain is positive with the probe derived from the CVD432 plasmid associated with the aggregative adherence phenotype, the Enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin 1 gene (astA) and daaC (F1845 afimbrial adhesin) associated with the diffuse adherence (DA) phenotype. Additionally, six E. coli strains are established as antigenic test strains for six new O groups, designated O176, O177, O178, O179, O180 and O181. All six strains produced Verocytotoxin and were positive for vtx1, vtx2, or both genes. Additional virulence genes associated with diarrhoeal disease in humans were found in four of the strains. O176 and O177 strains were isolated from calves, O178 and O181 strains from meat, the O179 strain was from human bloody diarrhoea, and the O180 strain from swine. Preliminary data on the occurrence and epidemiology of these eight new O groups amongst groups of diarrhoeagenic E. coli are reviewed.