To determine the phosphorylation sites of the tau in paired helical filaments (PHF), two types of PHF antisera with different specificities were used: One was a conventional anti-PHF, and the other was an antiserum to formic acid-denatured PHF (anti-HFoPHF). Phosphorylated tau-specific antibodies, anti-ptau 1 and anti-ptau 2, were prepared from anti-PHF and anti-HFoPHF, respectively. We found that both anti-ptau 1 and anti-ptau 2 labeled fetal or juvenile tau but not adult tau. The anti-ptau 1- and anti-ptau 2-recognition sites were immunochemically localized to the fragment Asp313 to Ile328 in the most COOH-terminal portion of tau. Furthermore, Ser315 was determined as the anti-ptau 2 recognition site. The sequence surrounding Ser315 was not found in the canonical sequences phosphorylated with known kinases.