Introduction: Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy characterized by compressive focal neuropathies and an underlying sensorimotor demyelinative polyneuropathy. It is usually caused by a 1.5 Mb deletion of the PMP22 gene (17p11.2).
Case report: We describe the case of a 31 year-old woman who presented with acute demyelinative peripheral polyneuropathy affecting the four limbs and elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein content a few days after a viral illness. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP, Guillain-Barré syndrome) was suspected. However, electrophysiologic examination suggested HNPP and subsequent genetic testing was confirmatory.
Conclusion: This case demonstrates that HNPP can present in an acute manner, mimicking AIDP.