Acceleration of liver regeneration could be of great clinical benefit in various liver-associated diseases. However, at present little is known about therapeutic interventions to enhance this regenerative process. Our limited understanding and the complexity of the mechanisms involved have prevented the identification of new targets for treatment. Here we propose a broad-range proteomic approach to this problem that makes possible the simultaneous study of different signaling and metabolic pathways on the liver proteome. Changes in protein expression in mouse livers (n = 5 per group) at 6 h and 12 h after partial hepatectomy and sham operation, as compared to untreated controls, were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry (MS), and mass fingerprinting. Twelve proteins, identified by MS, were up-regulated by at least 2-fold after partial hepatectomy. These included adipose differentiation-related protein, gamma-actin, enoyl coenzyme A hydratase 1, serum amyloid A and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. These results indicate that liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy affects various signaling and metabolic pathways.