The genetic susceptibility for gestational diabetes (GDM) was estimated by comparisons of genotypes within human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) in 199 women with GDM and 213 healthy women. At least one of ICA, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, or islet cell antigen-2 antibodies/tyrosine phosphatase antibodies was found in 6.0% (12/199) of women with GDM and were considered as autoimmune GDM, whereas the remaining 187 were considered as nonautoimmune GDM. HLA genotyping was done with polymerase chain reaction and sequence-specific oligonucleotides. MICA polymorphism was determined with polymerase chain reaction and fragment size determination. HLA-DR3-DQ2/x or DR4-DQ8/x and MICA5.0/5.1 were more frequent in autoimmune GDM compared with controls; 92% versus 46% and 42% versus 13% and conferred increased risk (odds ratio [OR] = 13; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-104) and (OR = 4.7; 95%CI 1.4-16). Four other genotypes were more frequent in nonautoimmune GDM compared with controls: HLA-DR7-DQ2/y, 24% versus 14%; DR9-DQ9/y, 9.6% versus 1.9%; DR14-DQ5/y, 7.5% versus 0.94%; and MICA5.0/z, 24% versus 13% and gave increased risk: OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.4, OR = 5.6; 95%CI 1.8-17, OR = 8.5; 95%CI 1.9-38, and OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.4, respectively. We concluded that autoimmune diabetes with onset during pregnancy is associated with the type 1 diabetes-associated genotypes and also with MICA5.0/5.1, whereas DR7-DQ2/y, DR9-DQ9/y, DR14-DQ5/y, and MICA5.0/z are risk factors for nonautoimmune GDM.