Different HLA-DR-DQ and MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) genotypes in autoimmune and nonautoimmune gestational diabetes in a Swedish population

Hum Immunol. 2004 Dec;65(12):1443-50. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2004.09.002.


The genetic susceptibility for gestational diabetes (GDM) was estimated by comparisons of genotypes within human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) in 199 women with GDM and 213 healthy women. At least one of ICA, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, or islet cell antigen-2 antibodies/tyrosine phosphatase antibodies was found in 6.0% (12/199) of women with GDM and were considered as autoimmune GDM, whereas the remaining 187 were considered as nonautoimmune GDM. HLA genotyping was done with polymerase chain reaction and sequence-specific oligonucleotides. MICA polymorphism was determined with polymerase chain reaction and fragment size determination. HLA-DR3-DQ2/x or DR4-DQ8/x and MICA5.0/5.1 were more frequent in autoimmune GDM compared with controls; 92% versus 46% and 42% versus 13% and conferred increased risk (odds ratio [OR] = 13; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-104) and (OR = 4.7; 95%CI 1.4-16). Four other genotypes were more frequent in nonautoimmune GDM compared with controls: HLA-DR7-DQ2/y, 24% versus 14%; DR9-DQ9/y, 9.6% versus 1.9%; DR14-DQ5/y, 7.5% versus 0.94%; and MICA5.0/z, 24% versus 13% and gave increased risk: OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.4, OR = 5.6; 95%CI 1.8-17, OR = 8.5; 95%CI 1.9-38, and OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.4, respectively. We concluded that autoimmune diabetes with onset during pregnancy is associated with the type 1 diabetes-associated genotypes and also with MICA5.0/5.1, whereas DR7-DQ2/y, DR9-DQ9/y, DR14-DQ5/y, and MICA5.0/z are risk factors for nonautoimmune GDM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Autoimmune Diseases / genetics*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes, Gestational / genetics*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / immunology*
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genes, MHC Class I
  • Genotype
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / genetics*
  • HLA-DR Antigens / genetics*
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Pregnancy
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sweden


  • HLA-DQ Antigens
  • HLA-DR Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • MHC class I-related chain A
  • Proteins