The legume root rot disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches is one major yield reducing factor in legume crop production. A comparative proteomic approach was carried out in order to identify proteins of the model legume Medicago truncatula which are regulated after an infection with A. euteiches . Several proteins were identified by two dimensional gel electrophoresis to be differentially expressed after pathogen challenge. Densitometric evaluation of expression values showed different regulation during the time-course analysed. Proteins regulated during the infection were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among the differentially expressed proteins, two encoded putative cell wall proteins and two were designated as small heat shock proteins. Furthermore, an isoform of the chalcone-O-methyltransferase was found to be increased in infected roots. The majority of induced proteins belonged to the family of class 10 of pathogenesis related proteins (PR10). Previously, various PR10-like proteins have been shown to be regulated by general stress or abscisic acid (ABA). Therefore, these proteins were further investigated concerning their regulation in response to drought stress and exogenous ABA-application. Complex regulation patterns were identified: three of the A. euteiches -induced PR10-like proteins were also induced by exogenous ABA- but none of them is induced after drought stress. In contrast, three of these proteins are down-regulated by drought stress. Hence, the strong expression of different PR10-family members and their regulation profiles indicates that this set of proteins plays a major role during root adaptations to various stress conditions.