Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasal, live attenuated influenza vaccine

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004 Dec;3(6):643-54. doi: 10.1586/14760584.3.6.643.


Data supporting the use of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in children and adults is reviewed, and the development and characteristics of the vaccine are summarized. The vaccine is highly effective and well tolerated in children and adults from 5 to 49 years of age. Correlates of immune protection include serum hemagglutination-inhibition antibody and secretory immunoglobulin A. Efficacy against antigenically well-matched epidemic influenza strains was high at 92%. In 1 year, despite a significant antigenic change in the epidemic influenza virus that did not match the vaccine, LAIV conferred 86% protection against culture-confirmed illness in children. In the future it is expected that additional studies will support a broadening of the age range for use with the LAIV to prevent influenza in children and adults.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Influenza A virus / immunology*
  • Influenza B virus / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Influenza, Human / immunology
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Influenza, Human / transmission
  • Middle Aged
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology


  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated