Disorders of the major airways in children are often difficult to treat. Recent advances in interventional radiology are proving useful, for both assessment of the severity of the problem and treatment. Flexible bronchoscopy and bronchography are essential tools for diagnosis, intervention and follow-up. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may also be important for the evaluation of cardiovascular anomalies, which are often associated with airway obstruction. Surgery remains the first line of treatment for most congenital abnormalities of the airway and for cardiac anomalies that cause airway compression. Balloon dilatation and stenting are helpful in certain other conditions, as well as in children whose airway problem is not fully corrected by surgery. A multidisciplinary approach is required, with input from pediatric cardiothoracic surgeons, radiologists, radiographers, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, anesthesiologists, intensivists, physiotherapists and liaison nurses.