NCBI GEO: mining millions of expression profiles--database and tools

Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Jan 1;33(Database issue):D562-6. doi: 10.1093/nar/gki022.


The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is the largest fully public repository for high-throughput molecular abundance data, primarily gene expression data. The database has a flexible and open design that allows the submission, storage and retrieval of many data types. These data include microarray-based experiments measuring the abundance of mRNA, genomic DNA and protein molecules, as well as non-array-based technologies such as serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and mass spectrometry proteomic technology. GEO currently holds over 30,000 submissions representing approximately half a billion individual molecular abundance measurements, for over 100 organisms. Here, we describe recent database developments that facilitate effective mining and visualization of these data. Features are provided to examine data from both experiment- and gene-centric perspectives using user-friendly Web-based interfaces accessible to those without computational or microarray-related analytical expertise. The GEO database is publicly accessible through the World Wide Web at

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Computer Graphics
  • Database Management Systems
  • Databases, Genetic* / standards
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Humans
  • National Library of Medicine (U.S.)
  • United States
  • User-Computer Interface