Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum C-terminal merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP-1p19) have been correlated with protection against malaria, but this association may apply to many merozoite antigens. To address this question, we conducted a prospective serological study of 205 individuals in an active 5-month clinical survey in a Senegalese village where malaria is mesoendemic. Before the 2000 rainy season, antibody responses specific for recombinant baculovirus PfMSP-1p19 or merozoite extracts were compared with 2 in vitro functional antibody activities (inhibition of parasite grown and erythrocyte invasion) and with the number of clinical episodes during 5 months of follow-up. Antibody levels to PfMSP-1p19 and merozoite extract correlated, respectively, with erythrocyte invasion and parasite growth inhibition. Although antibody levels to both antigen preparations were associated with age, functional parameters were not. High levels of anti-PfMSP-1p19 immunoglobulin G were associated with reduced malaria in an age-adjusted multivariate analysis. These results support baculovirus PfMSP-1p19-based vaccine development.